Featured Artist at the e.Gallery: Mary Cassatt


Portrait

Featured Artist at the e.Gallery this week is a 19th Century artist of the Impressionist movement, Mary Cassatt [American, 1844-1926] Link: https://fineart.elib.com/fineart.php?dir=Alphabetical/Cassatt_Mary

Mary Cassatt (b. May 22, 1844, Allegheny City, Pa., U.S. — d. June 14, 1926, Château de Beaufresne, near Paris, Fr.), American painter and printmaker who exhibited with the Impressionists.

The daughter of an affluent Pittsburgh businessman, whose French ancestry had endowed him with a passion for that country, she studied art at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts in Philadelphia, and then travelled extensively in Europe, finally settling in Paris in 1874. In that year she had a work accepted at the Salon and in 1877 made the acquaintance of Degas, with whom she was to be on close terms throughout his life. His art and ideas had a considerable influence on her own work; he introduced her to the Impressionists and she participated in the exhibitions of 1879, 1880, 1881 and 1886, refusing to do so in 1882 when Degas did not.

She was a great practical support to the movement as a whole, both by providing direct financial help and by promoting the works of Impressionists in the USA, largely through her brother Alexander. By persuading him to buy works by Manet, Monet, Morisot, Renoir, Degas and Pissarro, she made him the first important collector of such works in America. She also advised and encouraged her friends the Havemeyers to build up their important collection of works by Impressionists and other contemporary French artists.

Her own works, on the occasions when they were shown in various mixed exhibitions in the USA, were very favourably received by the critics and contributed not a little to the acceptance of Impressionism there. Despite her admiration for Degas, she was no slavish imitator of his style, retaining her own very personal idiom throughout her career. From him, and other Impressionists, she acquired an interest in the rehabilitation of the pictural qualities of everyday life, inclining towards the domestic and the intimate rather than the social and the urban (Lady at the Teatable, 1885; Metropolitan Museum, New York), with a special emphasis on the mother and child theme in the 1890s (The Bath, 1891; Art Institute of Chicago). She also derived from Degas and others a sense of immediate observation, with an emphasis on gestural significance. Her earlier works were marked by a certain lyrical effulgence and gentle, golden lighting, but by the 1890s, largely as a consequence of the exhibition of Japanese prints held in Paris at the beginning of that decade, her draughtsmanship became more emphatic, her colors clearer and more boldly defined. The exhibition also confirmed her predilection for print-making techniques, and her work in this area must count amongst the most impressive of her generation. She lived in France all her life, though her love of her adopted countrymen did not increase with age, and her latter days were clouded with bitterness.


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The Caress

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Summertime

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Mother about to Wash her Sleepy Child

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Children in a Garden (The Nurse)

Featured Artist at the e.Gallery: Mary Cassatt


Portrait

Featured Artist at the e.Gallery this week is a 19th Century artist of the Impressionist movement, Mary Cassatt [American, 1844-1926] Link: https://fineart.elib.com/fineart.php?dir=Alphabetical/Cassatt_Mary

Mary Cassatt (b. May 22, 1844, Allegheny City, Pa., U.S. — d. June 14, 1926, Château de Beaufresne, near Paris, Fr.), American painter and printmaker who exhibited with the Impressionists.

The daughter of an affluent Pittsburgh businessman, whose French ancestry had endowed him with a passion for that country, she studied art at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts in Philadelphia, and then travelled extensively in Europe, finally settling in Paris in 1874. In that year she had a work accepted at the Salon and in 1877 made the acquaintance of Degas, with whom she was to be on close terms throughout his life. His art and ideas had a considerable influence on her own work; he introduced her to the Impressionists and she participated in the exhibitions of 1879, 1880, 1881 and 1886, refusing to do so in 1882 when Degas did not.

She was a great practical support to the movement as a whole, both by providing direct financial help and by promoting the works of Impressionists in the USA, largely through her brother Alexander. By persuading him to buy works by Manet, Monet, Morisot, Renoir, Degas and Pissarro, she made him the first important collector of such works in America. She also advised and encouraged her friends the Havemeyers to build up their important collection of works by Impressionists and other contemporary French artists.

Her own works, on the occasions when they were shown in various mixed exhibitions in the USA, were very favourably received by the critics and contributed not a little to the acceptance of Impressionism there. Despite her admiration for Degas, she was no slavish imitator of his style, retaining her own very personal idiom throughout her career. From him, and other Impressionists, she acquired an interest in the rehabilitation of the pictural qualities of everyday life, inclining towards the domestic and the intimate rather than the social and the urban (Lady at the Teatable, 1885; Metropolitan Museum, New York), with a special emphasis on the mother and child theme in the 1890s (The Bath, 1891; Art Institute of Chicago). She also derived from Degas and others a sense of immediate observation, with an emphasis on gestural significance. Her earlier works were marked by a certain lyrical effulgence and gentle, golden lighting, but by the 1890s, largely as a consequence of the exhibition of Japanese prints held in Paris at the beginning of that decade, her draughtsmanship became more emphatic, her colors clearer and more boldly defined. The exhibition also confirmed her predilection for print-making techniques, and her work in this area must count amongst the most impressive of her generation. She lived in France all her life, though her love of her adopted countrymen did not increase with age, and her latter days were clouded with bitterness.


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The Caress

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Summertime

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Mother about to Wash her Sleepy Child

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Children in a Garden (The Nurse)

Featured Artist at the e.Gallery: Camille Pissarro


Portrait

Featured Artist at the e.Gallery this week is a 19th Century artist of the Impressionist movement, Camille Pissarro [French, 1830-1903] Link: https://fineart.elib.com/fineart.php?dir=Alphabetical/Pissarro_Camille

Camille Pissarro (b. July 10, 1830, St. Thomas, Danish West Indies — d. November 13, 1903, Paris), grew up on St. Thomas in the Antilles, where his parents, who had been born in France, ran a prosperous trading business. At the age of eleven, Pissaro was sent to Savary, a boarding school near Paris, where drawing was among the subjects he was taught. In 1851 he became acquainted with the young painter Fritz Melbye on St. Thomas and decided to go to Venezuela, where he remained until 1854, working hard on drawing. In 1855 he returned to Paris, where he became a pupil of the marine painter Anton Melbye.

Pissaro visited the Paris Exposition and was particularly impressed by the work of Delacroix, Courbet and Corot. He met Corot not long afterwards and followed his advice to paint from nature. The fruits of this approach were naturalistic landscapes in dark tones revealing the strong influence of Corot. In 1859 Pissarro was represented for the first time in the Salon and, at the Académie Suisse, he became acquainted with Monet and Cézanne. Thenceforth ties of friendship linked the three painters, which in the 1870s would lead to their establishing an artists’ collective.

In 1863 Pissarro became a member of the “Société des Aquafortistes” and began to etch. In 1866 he met Manet and the Café Guerbois circle of artists — to which Renoir, Monet, Sisley, Zola et al belonged. Working in close association with Monet and Renoir, Pissarro began to lighten his palette and detach himself from the style of his teacher, Corot. The Franco-Prussian War made him flee to London, leaving almost all his pictures behind, which fell victim to the depredations of the German forces. In London Pissarro married his mistress of many years, Julie Vellay, with whom he had five children.

Returning to France in 1871, Pissarro worked with Monet and Cézanne in the years that followed. Now a member of the avant-garde, he was a driving force behind the first Impressionist Exhibition in 1874. He was the only artist to have participated in all eight Impressionist exhibitions up to 1882. In the 1880s, Pissarro, always a landscapist, turned to unemotional descriptions of peasant life and ended by changing his style, joining forces with the young painters Seurat and Signac to found the Neo-Impressionist movement.

The last decade of Pissarro’s, during which his reputation was at its height with earnings to match, saw him take productive trips to London, Paris, Rouen and Dieppe. They brought forth urban landscapes in a “more moderate style,” informed by optimism and the endeavor to render movement and atmosphere in visual terms.

Pissarro’s œuvre comprises more than 2000 paintings and just as many drawings and prints.


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Sunlight on the Road – Pontoise

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Boulevard Montmartre: Rainy Weather, Afternoon

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Resting in the Woods at Pontoise

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Gelee blanche (Hoarfrost)

Featured Artist at the e.Gallery: I Hiroshige


Portrait

Featured Artist at the e.Gallery this week is a 19th Century artist, I Hiroshige [Japanese, 1797-1858] Link: https://fineart.elib.com/fineart.php?dir=Alphabetical/Hiroshige_I

Hiroshige (1797-1858), Japanese painter and printmaker, known especially for his landscape prints. The last great figure of the Ukiyo-e, or popular, school of printmaking, he transmuted everyday landscapes into intimate, lyrical scenes that made him even more successful than his contemporary, Hokusai.

Ando Hiroshige was born in Edo (now Tokyo) and at first, like his father, was a fire warden. The prints of Hokusai are said to have first kindled in him the desire to become an artist, and he entered the studio of Utagawa Toyohiro, a renowned painter, as an apprentice. In 1812 Hiroshige took his teacher’s name (a sign of graduation), signing his work Utagawa Hiroshige. His career falls roughly into three periods. From 1811 to about 1830 he created prints of traditional subjects such as young women and actors. During the next 15 years he won fame as a landscape artist, reaching a peak of success and achievement in 1833 when his masterpiece, the print series Fifty-three Stations of the Tokaido (scenes on the highway connecting Edo and Kyoto), was published. He maintained this high level of craftmanship in other travel series, including Celebrated Places in Japan and Sixty-nine Stations on the Kiso Highway. The work he did during the third period, the last years of his life, is sometimes of lesser quality, as he appears to have hurriedly met the demands of popularity. He died of cholera on October 12, 1858, in Edo.

With Hokusai, Hiroshige dominated the popular art of Japan in the first half of the 19th century. His work was not as bold or innovative as that of the older master, but he captured, in a poetic, gentle way that all could understand, the ordinary person’s experience of the Japanese landscape as well as the varied moods of memorable places at different times. His total output was immense, some 5400 prints in all.


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Hiroshige – 16 Thumbnail images

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Ushimachi, Takanawa

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The Plum Garden in Kameido

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Moon Pine, Ueno

Featured Artist at the e.Gallery: François Ferrière


Portrait

Featured Artist at the e.Gallery this week is a 19th Century artist, François Ferrière [Swiss-French, 1752-1839] Link: https://fineart.elib.com/fineart.php?dir=Alphabetical/Ferriere_Francois

François Ferrière (1752–1839), was a Swiss miniaturist painter of portraits in oil and pastel, and an engraver practicing in landscape, genre scenes and trompe l’oeil. He was active in Geneva, London and St. Petersburg.

François Ferrière was born in Geneva and studied in Paris. He moved to Britain in 1793, exhibiting miniatures in London until 1804, when he traveled to St Petersburg and Moscow. He came back to Britain in 1817, exhibiting his strongly characterized portrait miniatures at the Royal Academy and the British Institution. Five years later he returned to Geneva, where he lived for the rest of his life. A respected portraitist, Ferrière included a number of Scots amongst his clients.


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The Old Port of Geneva

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John Ramsay

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Portrait de femme

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Portrait of Miss Reboul

Featured Artist at the e.Gallery: Gustav Caillebotte


Portrait

Featured Artist at the e.Gallery this week is a 19th Century artist of the Impressionist movement, Gustav Caillebotte [French, 1848-1894] Link: https://fineart.elib.com/fineart.php?dir=Alphabetical/Caillebotte_Gustav

Gustave Caillebotte, b. Aug. 19, 1848, d. Feb. 21, 1894, was a French painter and a generous patron of the Impressionists, whose own works, until recently, were neglected.

He was an engineer by profession, but also attended the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris. He met Edgar Degas, Claude Monet, and Pierre Auguste Renoir in 1874 and helped organize the first impressionist exhibition in Paris that same year. He participated in later shows and painted some 500 works in a more realistic style than that of his friends. Caillebotte’s most intriguing paintings are those of the broad, new Parisian boulevards. The boulevards were painted from high vantage points and were populated with elegantly clad figures strolling with the expressionless intensity of somnambulists, as in Boulevard Vu d’en Haut (1880; private collection, Paris). Caillebotte’s superb collection of impressionist paintings was left to the French government on his death. With considerable reluctance the government accepted part of the collection.


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Le jardin du Petit Gennevilliers en hiver

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L’Yerres, pluie

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Dans un café

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Le pont de l’Europe

Featured Artist at the e.Gallery: Eugène Henri Paul Gauguin


Portrait

Featured Artist at the e.Gallery this week is a 19th Century artist of the Post-Impressionist movement, Eugène Henri Paul Gauguin [French, 1848-1903] Link: https://fineart.elib.com/fineart.php?dir=Alphabetical/Gauguin_Paul

(Eugène-Henri-Paul) Gauguin (b. June 7, 1848, Paris, Fr. – d. May 8, 1903, Atuona, Hiva Oa, Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia), one of the leading French painters of the Post-impressionist period, whose development of a conceptual method of representation was a decisive step for 20th-century art. After spending a short period with Vincent van Gogh in Arles (1888), Gauguin increasingly abandoned imitative art for expressiveness through color.

Gauguin, in what we now might call a “mid-life crisis”, left his career and family to pursue painting, traveling as far as Tahiti to “find himself”. From 1891 he lived and worked in Tahiti and elsewhere in the South Pacific. Inspired this tropical environment, Gauguin moved away from Impressionism (and the style of his mentor, Pissarro) and became known for using flat forms and wild color. His best known works all came from this later period. His masterpieces include the early

  • Vision After the Sermon (1888) and

and the later works:

  • Tahitian Women, (1891)
  • Nevermore, (1897)
  • Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going? (1897-98).


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Featured Artist at the e.Gallery: Thomas Cole


Portrait

Featured Artist at the e.Gallery this week is a 19th Century artist of the Hudson River School movement, Thomas Cole [American, 1801-1848] Link: https://fineart.elib.com/fineart.php?dir=Alphabetical/Cole_Thomas

Thomas Cole is often called the “Father of the Hudson River School of Art.” In 1826 he helped to found the National Academy of Design in New York City. In 1827 he made his first visit to the White Mountains. While best known for his allegorical paintings such as the Voyage of Life and the Course of Empire series, he did many White Mountain paintings including Flume in the White Mountains; View of Mount Washington; Mount Chocorua; Notch of the White Mountains; View Near Conway; and Mount Washington from the Upper Saco Intervale.

Cole was apprenticed to a calico designer and wood engraver in England before he came to the United States with his family in 1818. The rest of his life he spent much of his time sketching from nature in the Catskills, White Mountains, Adirondacks, and the coast of Maine. In 1827, at the behest of Daniel Wadsworth, Cole visited the White Mountains for the first time. He visited the New Hampshire mountains again a year later with fellow artist Henry Cheever Pratt, only eight years after the first footpath was opened to Mount Washington. He returned to New Hampshire for the last time in 1839. In the winters, Cole returned to his New York City studio to paint romantic, amalgamative, grand, and enormous allegorical works such as the Voyage of Life and Course of Empire from the accumulated sketches of his summer excursions. Though he preferred allegorical subjects, he also painted many landscapes, often at the specific request of patrons. All his paintings are romantic in vein, for Cole felt it his duty to depict nature, especially American nature, as the “visible hand of God.” From 1829 to 1832 Cole traveled abroad, but his unique genius was not affected by Old World contacts. His only pupil was his neighbor in Catskill, Frederic Church.

Cole died in 1848 at only 47 years of age. He is buried at Thomson Street Cemetery, Catskill, New York. Upon his death, William Cullen Bryant presented a funeral oration at the National Academy of Design. See The Funeral Oration Given by William Cullen Bryant on the Death of Thomas Cole.


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Expulsion from the Garden of Eden

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Distant View of Niagara Falls

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The Titan’s Goblet

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The Oxbow

Featured Artist at the e.Gallery: Eduard Gaertner


Portrait

Featured Artist at the e.Gallery this week is a 19th Century artist, Eduard Gaertner [German, 1801-1877] Link: https://fineart.elib.com/fineart.php?dir=Alphabetical/Gaertner_Eduard

Eduard Gaertner was German Romantic painter, architect and printmaker (also Johann Philipp Eduard Gaertner). He was known by documenting Berlin in his paintings, carefully depicting the architectural and technological wonders of the time.

The years between the defeat of Napoleon in 1815 and the revolutions of 1848, known as the Biedermeier era, were a time of relative peace, prosperity, and innovation in German-speaking Europe. The art of the period came to be characterized by what a critic of the day called “rigorous simplicity.”

Berlin was expanding rapidly, growing to fulfill its role as a major European capital. Imposing new public buildings by Schinkel and his disciples were being constructed. Painters like Eduard Gaertner and Johann Erdmann Hummel chose Berlin as their subject.

In Gaertner’s paintings, emphasis was given to the objective recording of natural phenomena, and he sought to achieve an enamel-like finish that masked individual brushstrokes. We see how landscape and portraiture grew in importance while history painting declined.

Gaertner was carefully depicting the architectural and technological wonders, like the huge granite bowl that adorned the center of the city. They also turned his attention to the magnificent boulevards, as in his view of Schinkel’s Neue Wache (New Guardhouse), whose Doric portico faces Unter den Linden, the city’s most elegant promenade and parade ground.


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Der Marktplatz mit der Nikolaikirche in Gent

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Klosterstrasse

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Die Bauakademie in Berlin

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Unter den Linden